life'sARA

什么是ARA(花生四烯酸)?

花生四烯酸(ARA)是一种存在于人体的多不饱和欧米茄-6脂肪酸(PUFA)。它是大脑中主要的欧米茄-6脂肪酸,约占大脑中所发现欧米茄-6脂肪的48%。1,2,3,4ARA的膳食来源包括肉类、家禽和蛋类。在婴儿时期,母乳是ARA(以及DHA)的膳食来源5,因为母乳始终含有ARA和DHA。有趣的是,无论母亲的饮食如何,母乳中的ARA水平均相对稳定,这表明ARA在婴儿发育期具有重要的生物学意义。6,7

ARA和DHA被认为是婴儿时期某些条件下的必需营养物质8,经科学研究证实,它们在妊娠和婴儿时期对人体组织的结构和功能、免疫功能以及大脑和视网膜发育起着关键作用。9,10,11由于婴幼儿对脂肪酸前体、亚油酸(LA)和α-亚麻酸(ALA)的转化能力较低,因此需要通过膳食摄取ARA和DHA,以保持其体内的ARA和DHA水平。12,13,14 ARA和DHA在细胞膜上的平衡是影响细胞功能的重要因素。尽管DHA和ARA具有截然不同的功能,但它们的代谢和功能活动相辅相成,共同体现出最佳的健康益处。15,16

ARA欧米茄-6益处的科学依据

  • ARA与DHA相结合,有益于身体、大脑和眼睛的生长和功能15
  • ARA不仅在所有细胞膜中具有结构和功能作用,作为各种生物学过程的前体和信使,它也是代谢活动中的必需物质16
  • ARA是一组重要代谢物的前体,这些代谢物可以发挥的作用有免疫功能17、炎症18、生育能力19和血液循环20的调节
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References:

  1. Martinez, M., Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. J Pediatr, 1992.120(4 Pt 2): p. S129-38.
  2. Lauritzen, L., et al., The essentiality of long chain n-­‐3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res, 2001. 40(1-­‐2): p. 1-94.
  3. Salem, N., Jr., et al., Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids, 2001. 36(9): p.945‐59.
  4. Crawford, M.A., The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr, 1993. 57(5 Suppl): p. 703S-­709S; discussion 709S‐710S.
  5. Yuhas, R., K. Pramuk, and E.L. Lien, Human milk fatty acid composition from nine countries varies most in DHA. Lipids, 2006. 41(9): p. 851‐8.
  6. Brenna, J.T.; Varamini, B.; Jensen, R.G.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Boettcher, J.A.; Arterburn, L.M. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human milk worldwide. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85, 1457-1464.
  7. Crawford, M.A.; Wang, Y.; Forsyth, S.; Brenna, J.T. The European Food Safety Authority recommendation for polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of infant formula overrules breast milk, puts infants at risk, and should be revised. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fat. Acids 2015102-103, 1-3.
  8. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2010. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 91.
  9. Martinez, M., Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. J Pediatr, 1992.120(4 Pt 2): p. S129-38.
  10. Koletzko, B.; Carlson, S.E.; van Goudoever, J.B. Should infant formula provide both omega-3 DHA and omega-6 arachidonic acid? Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2015, 66, 137-138.  
  11. Hadley, K.B.; Ryan, A.S.; Forsyth, S.; Gautier, S.; Salem, N. Jr. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development. Nutrients, 2016, 8: 216.
  12. Brenna, J.T. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present. Nutr. Rev. 2016, 74(5), 329-36.
  13. Pawlosky, R.J.; Lin, Y.H.; Llanos, A.; Mena, P.; Uauy, R.; Salem, N., Jr. Compartmental analysis of plasma 13C- and 2H-labelled n-6 fatty acids arising from oral administrations of 13C-U-18:2n-6 and 2H5-20:3n-6 in newborn infants. Pediatr. Res. 200660, 327-333.
  14. Carnielli, V.P.; Simonato, M.; Verlato, G.; Luijendijk, I.; De Curtis, M.; Sauer, P.J.J.; Cogo, P.E. Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm newborns fed formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 200786, 1323-1330.
  15. Crawford, M.A.; Wang, Y.; Forsyth, S.; Brenna, J.T. New European Food Safety Authority recommendation for infant formulae contradicts the physiology of human milk and infant development. Nutr. Health. 201322(2), 81-87.
  16. Koletzko, B.; Carlson, S.E.; van Goudoever, J.B. Should infant formula provide both omega-3 DHA and omega-6 arachidonic acid? Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2015, 66, 137-138. 
  17. Carlson, S.E., Colombo, J. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Nutrition in Early Development. Adv Pediatr2016, 63,453-71.
  18. Crawford, M.A.; Wang, Y.; Forsyth, S.; Brenna, J.T. New European Food Safety Authority recommendation for infant formulae contradicts the physiology of human milk and infant development. Nutr. Health. 201322(2), 81-87.
  19. Richard, C.; Lewis, E.D.; Field, C.J. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant’s immune system early in life. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab., 201641, 461-475.
  20. Hadley, K.B.; Ryan, A.S.; Forsyth, S.; Gautier, S.; Salem, N. Jr. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development. Nutrients, 2016, 8: 216.
  21. Brenna, J.T. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present. Nutr. Rev. 2016, 74(5), 329-36.
  22. Hadley, K.B.; Ryan, A.S.; Forsyth, S.; Gautier, S.; Salem, N. Jr. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development. Nutrients, 2016, 8: 216.

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